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Established around two hundred and forty years ago, Liverpool Heywoods Branch is steeped in history.  Yet in the early 1960s, it is also chosen to MAKE history, as one of the first computerised branches of Martins Bank, as we shall see later on this page.  We begin with an extract from the booklet “Arthur Heywood, Sons and Company, 1773-1883” which is published by Martins Bank in 1949. For anyone who works today in a customer contact role, the ingenious ways in which Heywoods’ cashiers remembered their customers by sight are quite a revelation…

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image007Of all the banks which either by amalgamation or absorption became part of the great Institution which today is known as Martins Bank Limited, only two have yielded more historical data than the old Liverpool private bank known as Arthur Heywood, Sons and Company. Martin's Bank, at the Sign of the Grasshopper in Lombard Street, by virtue of its great antiquity and its connection with Elizabethan times and person­alities, could be expected to provide a rich store of treasure and anecdote…

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Image © Barclays Ref 0030/1669

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While the connection of Cocks, Biddulph and Company with the Royal House, in addition to its links with the times of the Stuarts and the Parliamentarians, also resulted in a unique legacy of documents and records.Heywood's Bank had its origin in the 18th century, and in the story of the development of this old family bank in the years that followed will be found much that is of real interest. - As in the case of many of the other banks which became a part of Martins Bank Limited, it is clear that with the passing of the years a great volume of interesting facts and reminiscences has been lost, but we owe the preservation of much of the material presented in these pages to those members of the Staff who have cared for these tiny fragments of that larger story of England; men who through their interest in the things of antiquity have made it their business to preserve the records from which this brief account has been written.

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In the vaults of this old bank are stored ledgers which go back to the time of the French Revolution and Signature Books which were in use during the ensuing Napoleonic wars. Here, too, are stored private diaries, the entries in which throw an interesting light on the bank clerk of an earlier day. The vaults themselves, together with the outside walls of the Bank are part of the original building commenced in 1798; and in them the brick-built arches of the Heywood wine cellar may still be seen.  The banking house of Arthur Heywood, Sons and Company had a much longer lease of life than any other similar firm in Liverpool. It endured as a private bank from 1773 until 1883, the year of its purchase by the Bank of Liverpool Limited. To trace the history of the family further back than the Eighteenth Century is outside the scope of this short account, but it is known that the Heywood family were Nonconformist, and that the Rev. Oliver Heywood of Halifax and his brother Nathaniel, Vicar of Ormskirk, were both ejected from their livings by the Act of. Uniformity in 1662. Nathaniel Heywood had two sons, Nathaniel and Richard. The latter emigrated to Drogheda and commenced business there as a merchant. Having no children of his own he invited his nephew Benjamin, son of Nathaniel, to live with him as his adopted son. In course of time Benjamin succeeded to a thriving business and married the daughter of General Arthur Graham of Armagh, a niece of the Mayor of Drogheda at that time.

He died at the early age of 38, leaving two sons, Arthur and Benjamin.  Arthur Heywood, who was later to become the founder of the Banking house, came to Liverpool in 1731 and served an apprenticeship of five years to John Hardman of Allerton Hall, Member of Parliament for the borough in 1754. He was followed ten years later by his brother Benjamin who, in 1741, was apprenticed to James Crosby, Mayor of Liverpool in 1753. Arthur Heywood afterwards lived in Lord Street, where he also had his business premises. Later the two brothers had houses built side by side in Hanover Street, Nos. 58 and 59. These houses were situated on the east side of the street, between Seel Street and Gradwell Street. Immediately behind their property was a tennis court.

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Images © Barclays Ref 0030/1300/03

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Heywoods Bank Queen Victoria Signature

This is a copy of the signature of Queen Victoria, held by Heywoods Bank.

Arthur Heywood had married for the first time in 1739 at the age of 22. His wife was the daughter of Samuel and Penelope Ogden, of Mossley Hill. Samuel Ogden's wife was the daughter of John Pemberton, a burgess of Chester, who became a wealthy Liverpool merchant. John Pemberton had another daughter who married Richard Mimes of Wakefield, and, two years after the death of his first wife, Arthur Heywood married a daughter of Richard Milnes. In 1751 Benjamin Heywood married the sister of Arthur's first wife.

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The business of the two brothers prospered. They became experienced in the African trade, engaged to some extent in privateering and had their Letters of Marque. As representative merchants they were elected to the Chamber of Commerce. It is clear that the change to banking had been foreshadowed for some time prior to 1773, the actual year in which the firm embarked on the business of banking. It appears obvious that traders and private individuals had regarded the Heywoods as being among the responsible merchants to whom surplus funds could be entrusted, and this no doubt influenced them in their decision to become bankers.

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In their new venture they had not long to wait for success, and in July of the following year they were singled out of all the bankers in Liverpool by the Government to receive the light gold then in circulation and to exchange for it gold of full weight. From Hanover Street the business was transferred to No. 7, Castle Street about 1776, and when the bank was established there, Arthur's eldest son, Richard, took up his residence on the bank's premises, as was customary in those days. Castle Street was, at that time, a narrow street only 12 feet wide. Later the west side was demolished and the street widened which necessitated the entire rebuilding of the bank premises. In 1784 the firm opened a branch in Manchester under the manage­ment of Richard Ogden.

Key to Heywoods family Chest

Key to the Heywoods family chest

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It was not a success, and two years later, in 1786, Arthur Heywood himself took over the management but after six months' Nathaniel, to live with him as his adopted son. In course of time Benjamin succeeded to a thriving business and married the daughter of General Arthur Graham of Armagh, a niece of the Mayor of Drogheda at that time. He died at the early age of 38, leaving two sons, Arthur and Benjamin.

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Heywoods Bank Castle Street, 1787 - Image © Messrs Henry Young and Sons

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Arthur Heywood, who was later to become the founder of the Banking house, came to Liverpool in 1731 and served an apprenticeship of five years to John Hardman of Allerton Hall, Member of Parliament for the borough in 1754. He was followed ten years later by his brother Benjamin who, in 1741, was apprenticed to James Crosby, Mayor of Liverpool in 1753. Arthur Heywood afterwards lived in Lord Street, where he also had his business premises. Later the two brothers had houses built side by side in Hanover Street, Nos. 58 and 59. These houses were situated on the east side of the street, between Seel Street and Gradwell Street. Immediately behind their property was a tennis court. Arthur Heywood had married for the first time in 1739 at the age of 22. His wife was the daughter of Samuel and Penelope Ogden, of Mossley Hill. Samuel Ogden's wife was the daughter of John Pemberton, a burgess of Chester, who became a wealthy Liverpool merchant. John Pemberton had another daughter who married Richard Mimes of Wakefield, and, two years after the death of his first wife, Arthur Heywood married a daughter of Richard Milnes. In 1751 Benjamin Heywood married the sister of Arthur's first wife.

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Ledger of True British & Good Intent Society

Ledger of the True British or Good Intent Society 1793

 

The business of the two brothers prospered. They became experienced in the African trade, engaged to some extent in privateering and had their Letters of Marque. As representative merchants they were elected to the Chamber of Commerce. 

It is clear that the change to banking had been foreshadowed for some time prior to 1773, the actual year in which the firm embarked on the business of banking. It appears obvious that traders and private individuals had regarded the Heywoods as being among the responsible merchants to whom surplus funds could be entrusted, and this no doubt influenced them in their decision to become bankers. In their new venture they had not long to wait for success, and in July of the following year they were singled out of all the bankers in Liverpool by the Government to receive the light gold then in circulation and to exchange for it gold of full weight. From Hanover Street the business was transferred to No. 7, Castle Street about 1776, and when the bank was established there, Arthur's eldest son, Richard, took up his residence on the bank's premises, as was customary in those days.

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Ledger 1

Ledger of the Commissioners for the issuing of Exchequer Bills 1793

Castle Street was, at that time, a narrow street only 12 feet wide. Later the west side was demolished and the street widened which necessitated the entire rebuilding of the bank premises.In 1784 the firm opened a branch in Manchester under the manage­ment of Richard Ogden. It was not a success, and two years later, in 1786, Arthur Heywood himself took over the management but after six months' experience closed the branch.

In 1788, however, Benjamin Heywood left the firm of Arthur Heywood, Sons and Company and with his two sons went to Manchester, where they established a successful banking business which was eventually taken over by the Manchester and Salford Bank. Arthur Heywood continued with his own sons until his death in 1795 at the age of 78, by which time an employee, Samuel Thompson, had become a partner. Benjamin Heywood died in Manchester in the same year at the age of 72. The construction of the building in Brunswick Street which is still associated with the name of the Heywood family was commenced in 1798 and the removal took place in 1800. From that time the interest of the family in the banking business developed. Richard Heywood died in 1800, and, as he had no children, the care of the bank devolved upon his younger brother, Arthur (ii). Hugh Jones, who married the eldest daughter of the second son of the first Arthur Heywood, became a partner in 1806. The fourth son of Arthur (i) was John Pemberton Heywood, and two of his sons, Richard Heywood (u) and John Pemberton Heywood (n) joined the banking firm. Richard Heywood (n), however, died in 1833 aged 31; and in 1835, Samuel Thompson died, being succeeded in the bank by his son, Samuel Henry Thompson.

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Arthur Heywood's Pistol

This pistol is believed to have been carried by the first Arthur Heywood.

 

The following year, 1836, the third daughter of Hugh Jones married Robertson Gladstone, brother of William Ewart Gladstone who became the great Victorian Prime Minister. In course of time their son obtained a partnership in the bank. In the same year John Pemberton Heywood, a grandson of the first Arthur Heywood, married a daughter of Hugh Jones, a marriage between close relatives which consolidated the several interests in the bank. He resided at the Bank House in Fenwick Street, but subsequently acquired a country residence at Norris Green.

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As a politician his consistent Liberalism won from Mr. Gladstone the offer of a peerage which, however, he declined. Arthur Heywood (n) died in the autumn of 1836, aged 82. Richard Heywood Jones, eldest son of Hugh Jones, appears to have received his partnership shortly before his marriage in October, 1836. Samuel Henry Thompson lived with his father in Abercromby Square until his marriage, when he removed to Toxteth. In 1847, he bought Thingwall Hall, near Liverpool, with nearly 300 acres of park land. He died in 1892, aged 85. To one of his sons Liverpool University is indebted for its medical laboratories and to the other the city owes the Palm Houses in Sefton and Stanley Parks, both now, unhappily, war casualties.

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1883 Heywoods and B of L.jpgIn 1883, the business was sold to the Bank of Liverpool Limited. The retirement of two partners and the untimely death of a third is understood to have influenced Mr. Arthur Heywood, who had carried on the business since the death of John Pemberton Heywood in 1877, in his decision to sell. The year 1835 was an outstanding year in the history of the Bank, In that year the accounts of the Corporation of Liverpool were transferred to it, and thereby hangs an interesting story, recounted in Sir James Picton's “Memorials”. He says: “The banking account of the Corporation up to this time had been "kept with the banking house of Messrs. Leyland and Bullens. At a " meeting of the Finance Committee., held on June 19th, Alderman Leyland " announced that he would make no further advances to the Corporation, the " account then standing to their debit in the sum of £12,800. Some rather “high” words ensued. Alderman Sandbach, Conservative though he might be, “was jealous for the honour of the Corporation, and immediately signed a “cheque on his bankers, Messrs. Heywood & Co., for the amount. The day “following the account of the Corporation was transferred from Leyland and “Co. to Messrs. Heywood, where it has ever since remained.”

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Nelson's Letter 1

Nelson's Letter 2

Perhaps the most interesting, and probably the most valuable relic which the archives of the old bank have yielded is a letter written by Lord Nelson to a Liverpool business friend. It was written aboard the “Victory,” off Lisbon, and is dated a few weeks before the Battle of Trafalgar. It was found amongst some old papers which were being examined prior to destruction. It is interesting to note that at the time of its discovery the sand was still on the writing, but with frequent handling this has long since dis­appeared.

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Today it is the exception to have a customer who cannot write, but the signature books of the early years of the nineteenth century contain the names of so many illiterate customers that some method of identification had to be adopted.

Letter written by Admiral Lord Nelson to a Liverpool business friend 

a few weeks before the Battle of Trafalgar

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The method chosen was that of a description of the customer in the space reserved for the signature. Some of these descriptions, a few examples of which follow, are somewhat trenchant:—

“Little pug-faced woman with a squeaky voice.”

“Rather short and remarkably plain. A little like a monkey.”

“Rings on her fingers.  About 12 hands high.”

“Shows the whites of his eyes all round.”

“Sallow, and marked with smallpox.”

”Old man, red wig, wedding ring on right hand”.

“Young woman, rather bold-looking.  Dark hair and eyes.” 

“Sharp-faced old woman. Punch's spirity woman.”

“Short round-made man.   Small rings in his ears.” 

“Little woman, inmouthed—lost her teeth.”

“Short man.  Whiskers all round his face, one tooth out in front. Looks like a coal heaver”.

“Clean looking old lady with frill cap.” 

 

But the most revealing of all is surely this description : 

 

“Thick-lipped old woman of 45.”

© 1949 Martins Bank Limited

Abridged 2013 by Martins Bank Archive

Automated Branch

The future arrives early - at Heywoods…

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1963 Machine Room TGG-PAWhen Martins first takes the idea of computerised book keeping seriously, it embarks on a road that leads to it becoming the UK’s first bank to regularly process the day to day transactions of a branch by computer.  In fact a number of branches take part, - in Liverpool: Heywoods and Castle Street, and in London: 68 Lombard Street and 41a South Audley Street.  Work is first processed in the old fashioned way, and then processed again using specially converted adding machines (seen here at Heywoods machine room, on the right of the picture) capable of printing out onto computer paper tape.  The tapes are fed into the Pegasus Computers, one at Liverpool Computer Centre, the other at South Audley Street.  The capability to read and sort cheques automatically comes with the use of an IBM Reader/Sorter machine, which is installed in Martins Bank’s Clearing Department at Lombard Street.

The cheque on the left is a very rare example of one of the earliest automated cheques from Heywoods, and dates from March 1961. At this early stage, the only detail to be encoded onto the cheque in magnetic ink is the customer’s account number.  Within months however, the cheque number, sorting code and amount will begin to be added to the experiment, and you can see the familiar “MICR Line” printed on the cheque shown here on the right from the mid-sixties.

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Images © Martins Bank Archive Collection

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We are grateful to Anne Hindle for this image – one of a number kindly donated to the Archive – from the estate of Ron Hindle, the visionary Martins man who brought to the UK the system of cheque clearing that still operates today.  In close up, on a Friden Flexowriter machine, is a statement of account about to be produced for a Heywoods customer.  Three of these machines, receiving their output from Pegasus, handle the work of the Liverpool computerised branches, at the Liverpool Computer Centre. Again, this photo was taken in the very early days of Martins Bank’s computerisation, when the records of around 30,000 current acocunts were processed daily by the Pegasus Computer.  You can read much more about these developments, and about how the efforts of Ron Hindle gave the UK an electronic clearing system that is still in place today, by browsing the various features in our TECHNOLOGY section.

001960 Close up of Heywoods statements printing on Friden Flexowriter RH0

Image – Martins Bank Archive Collection © Ron Hindle Estate

 

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Still see the light?

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Remarkably – as late as 1978 – the colour image of Barclays Liverpool Heywoods Branch below, reveals that the area still relies for its street lighting on the same precarious overhead cabling with suspended lighting units!

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Images © Barclays Ref 0030/1669

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1903 to 1912 Mr E B Gillard MBM-Wi47P11

1908 to 1919 Mr H Dickman MBM-Au47P15

1909  to 1914 Mr H G Herbert MBM-Au47P16

1910 Mr T A Samuel Joined the service here MBM-Sp47P28

1910 to 1928 Mr J F W Kermode MBM-Au54P50

1914 to at least 1920 Mr A C Sanderson MBM-Au57P54

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Mr E B Gillard

On the Staff

1903 to 1912

Mr H Dickman

On the Staff

1908 to 1919

Mr H G Herbert

On the Staff

1909 to 1914

Mr T A Samuel

Joined the Bank Here

1910

Mr J F W Kermode

On the Staff

1910 to 1928

Mr A C Sanderson

On the Staff

1914 to 1920

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1915 Mr L K Hyde joined the bank here MBM-Wi59P48

1920 to 1922 Mr W R Woods Assistant Manager MBM-Sp57P50

1921 to 1927 Mr T A Johnson MBM-Au46P05

1923 to 1941 Alec R Ellis MBM-Sp48P30

1925 to 1929 Mr R H Price Manager's Secretary MBM-Au47P10

1928 to 1934 Mr W Brookes joined the bank here MBM-Sp68P07

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Mr L K Hyde

Joined the Bank Here

1915

Mr W R Woods

Assistant Manager

1920 to 1922

Mr T A Johnson

On the Staff

1921 to 1927

Mr Alec R Ellis

On the Staff

1923 to 1941

Mr R H Price

Manager

1925 to 1929

Mr W Brookes

Joined the Bank Here

1928 to 1934

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1932 to 1935 Mr J W Hobley MBM-Au62P52

1936 to 1946 Miss Drusilla M Meacock MBM-Sp48P31

1936 to 1958 Mr A H Nutt Accountant MBM-Au58P56

1937 to 1947 Mr R E J Wess joined the bank here MBM-Au68P08

1939 to 1942 Mr R L Cockhill joined the bank here MBM-Wi66P04

1941 to 1942 Mr R F Dixon joined the bank here MBM-Au64P03

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Mr J W Hobley

On the Staff

1932 to 1935

Miss Drusilla M Meacock

On the Staff

1936 to 1946

Mr A H Nutt

Accountant

1936 to 1958

Mr R E J Wess

Joined the Bank Here

1937 to 1947

Mr R L Cockhill

Joined the Bank Here

1939 to 1942

Mr R F Dixon

Joined the Bank Here

1941 to 1942

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1944 to 1945 Mr B L Skiming joined the bank here MBM-Su65P08

1944 to 1946 Mr N E Blake joined the bank here MBM-Sp68P03

1945 to 1947 Mr C P Williams Manager MBM-Sp48P11

1945 to 1947 Mr K E Jarvis joined the bank here MBM-Au62P42

1946 to 1960 Mr N Atkinson MBM-Wi68P07

1948 Mr J R Whittle Manager MBM-Sp48P41

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Mr B L Skiming

Joined the Bank Here

1944 to 1945

Mr N E Blake

Joined the Bank Here

1944 to 1946

Mr C P Williams

Manager

1945 to 1947

Mr K E Jarvis

Joined the Bank Here

1945 to 1947

Mr N Atkinson

On the Staff

1946 to 1960

Mr J R Whittle

Manager

1947 to 1953

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1948 to 1949 Mr W Alderton MBM-Wi66P04

1949 to 1950 Mr A D Barlow joined the bank here MBM-Wi65P04

1950 Mr J A Kirk Chief Cashier MBM-Au50P08

1952 to 1954 Mr J N Quine MBM-Wi68P52

1953 to 1956 Mr G R Kelly MBM-Wi55P38

1953 to 1958 Mr J Randle Manager MBM-Su53P06

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Mr W Alderton

On the Staff

1948 to 1949

Mr A D Barlow

Joined the Bank Here

1949 to 1950

Mr J A Kirk

Chief Cashier

1950

Mr J N Quine

On the Staff

1952 to 1954

Mr G R Kelly

On the Staff

1953 to 1956

Mr J Randle

Manager

1953 to 1958

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1957 to 1958 Mr D J Crellin MBM-Au64P04

1957 to 1958 Mr J M Holdsworth MBM-Wi63P06

1957 to 1959 Mr W E Turnbull MBM-Au59P07

1958 to 1959 Mr D G Telfer MBM-Wi66P05

1958 to 1963 Mr A D Gollifer Manager MBM-Su58P25

1958 to 1965 Mr S J Johnson Accountant MBM-Sp65P52

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Mr D J Crellin

On the Staff

1957 to 1958

Mr J M Holdsworth

On the Staff

1957 to 1958

Mr W E Turnbull

On the Staff

1957 to 1959

Mr D G Telfer

On the Staff

1958 to 1959

Mr A D Gollifer

On the Staff

1958 to 1963

Mr S J Johnson

Accountant

1958 to 1965

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1959 Mr D Craig Head of Securities and Pro Manager (Retiring) MBM-Su59P50

1959 to 1961 Mr B O'Brien Sub Manager MBM-Su67P05


1960 to 1964 Mr W A Inglis  MBM-Su67P06

1961 to 1967 Mr H F Smith Sub Manager then Asst Mgr from 1964 MBM-Su67P03

1963 to 1967 Mr B Bithell Manager MBM-Su67P53

1965 Mr NK Gibson Accountant MBM-Sp65P04

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Mr D Craig

Head of Securities

1959

Mr B O’Brien

Sun Manager

1959 to 1961

Mr W A Inglis

On the Staff

1960 to 1964

Mr H F Smith

Sub Manager

1961 to 1967

Mr B Bithell

Manager

1963 to 1967

Mr N K Gibson

Accountant

1965

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1967 Mr GL Humphreys Deputy Manager MBM-Su67P05

1967 Mr J Nicholls Accountant MBM-Au67P04

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Mr G L Humphreys

Deputy Manager

1967 Onwards

Mr J M Nicholls

Accountant

1967 onwards

 

 

 

 

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Title:

Type:

Address:

Index Number and District:

Hours:

 

Telephone:

Services:

Manager:

11-00-30 Liverpool Heywoods

Full Branch

PO Box 74,5 Brunswick Street Liverpool L69 2BW

22 Liverpool

Mon to Fri 1000-1500

Saturday 0900-1130

CENtral 0641/3

Counter, Nightsafe and some computerised accounts

Mr A T Foulkes

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1773

1776

1800

1883

18 December 1918

3 Janaury 1928

15 December 1969

11 October 1991

Currently

Business begins in in Hanover Street

Business moves to Castle Street

Business settles at Brunswick Street

Bank of Liverpool

Bank of Liverpool and Martins

Martins Bank Limited

Barclays Bank Limited 20-50-77 Liverpool Heywoods

Closed

Restaurant

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